Key information
Atomic number: 
83
Atomic weight: 
208.98
Density: 
9800 kg/m³
Boiling point: 
1833.16° K
Melting point: 
544.46° K
Heat vapour: 
178.81 kJ/mol
Heat fusion: 
10.89 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 
0.9 W/m/K
Specific heat capacity: 
8.38 J/kg/K

Bismuth is a brittle metal which has poor thermal conductivity together with high electrical resistance. It has lower toxicity than lead and as an alloy can be used as a replacement for that metal.

Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) describes the assaying of lead, copper, tin, mercury, iron and bismuth in De Re Metallica his classical work on mining and the science of metallurgy. Agricola used the term wissmuth, latinised to bisemutum for bismuth, a metal unknown to the "Ancients", which is described as are methods for smelting bismuth ore.

Electron Shell: 
Amazon Books
Image of The Last Sorcerers: The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table
Author: National Academy of Sciences, Richard Morris
Publisher: Henry (Joseph) Press (2003)
Binding: Hardcover, 294 pages