According to Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), the Earth's crust, was formed from an old soil, composed of mountainous masses of granites poor in fossils, and a more recent one, fossiliferous and sedimentary. The rocks of the original soil, he wrote, "are arranged in perpendicular layers or inclined towards the horizon... They are composed of quartz, granite, shale, slate and talcose."
Abundance in Earth's crust
Element %
O 46.71
Si27.69
Al 8.07
Fe 5.05
Ca 3.65
Na 2.75
K 2.58
Mg 2.08
Ti 0.62
H 0.14
P 0.13
C 0.09
Mn 0.09
S 0.05
Ba0.05
Cl 0.05
Cr 0.04
F 0.03
Zr 0.03
Ni 0.02
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Earth Aurora (Auroral X-ray emission observed from Earth's north polar region.)
Amazon Books
Image of Earth
Author: Stephen Marshak
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company (2007)
Binding: Paperback, 880 pages