Key information
Atomic number: 
3
Group: 
Alkali Metals

Lithium is a soft, silver white metal. It is the lightest solid element. As a group 1 element it has a characteristic reaction with oxygen to form lithium oxide (Li2O). It reacts with water

2H2O + 2Li -> 2LiOH +H2

Lithium was named by J.J. Berzelius in 1818 from the Greek word lithos. It was discovered by the Swedish chemist Johan August Arfwedson (1792?â????1841), a student of Berzelius, in the previous year, when he analysed the mineral petalite (LiAlSi4O10).

It has the second widest range of application of the alkali metals (sodium has the most).

Electron Shell: 
Amazon Books
Image of The Last Sorcerers: The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table
Author: National Academy of Sciences, Richard Morris
Publisher: Henry (Joseph) Press (2003)
Binding: Hardcover, 294 pages